The primary function of soil is as an electrical ground for plants. To do this, it must first be paramagnetic, and secondly, it must be highly biotic, functioning like an animal’s digestive system.
pH Controls the speed of flow of electrical activity in the soil fluids, and the balance point of cations/anions.
EC/Ergs Electrical conductivity—indicates the amount of plant food available/second/gram (tsp) of soil.
ppmNA Parts per million Sodium—indicates the level of mineral salts. Excessive salts are detrimental to life. (Multiply parts per million times two to obtain pounds per acre.)
Redox/ORP Redox/Oxygen Reduction Potential is the sum total of all anions and cations in a fluid. Below ideal indicates that the organic matter (OM) is rotting and forming alcohols and aldehydes—preservatives. Within ‘ideal’ indicates that the OM is decomposing properly, i.e. forming humus and humic acids. Above the ideal range indicates that the OM is burning up too fast.
NO3 & NH4 are the electrolytes of the soil—meaning that nitrogen facilitates the availability of the other nutrients.
P2O5 The ratio of P:K should be 2:1 for row-crops (4:1 for grasses and hay crops).
K2O The ratio of Ca:K should be 15-25:1.` K:Na should be 1:1.
Ca The ratio of Ca:Mg should be 7:1*. Mg:K should be 2.5:1
Minerals control the quality of electricity in the flow of life. Organic Matter (OM) in the soil is the reservoir for N, P, S, B, and Zn. Example: The OM of a highly productive soil should be above 5% of the Acre-Furrow-Slice (approximately the top 6.5” of soils) which weighs about 2,000,000 pounds. Therefore, a soil with 5% OM would have 100,000 pounds of OM per acre. If the soil contains <1.5—2% OM, it is, at best, marginally productive and the plants on that soil will be disease and insect prone.
The amount of N can be extrapolated from the %OM. A soil with 5% OM would have 100,000 pounds of OM per acre. Approximately 5% of this is in nitrogenous materials (proteins, etc.), which means that approximately 5,000 pounds of nitrogen is sequestered in your soil. About 5% of that (250 lbs/acre) is available for the plants at any given time. (Ref: An Acres USA Primer by Charles Walters, Jr. and C.J. Fenzau (1979), and Clemson University.
To raise OM by 1%- need to build with 30,000 pounds per acre. Root exudates account for 50% of the root development, which is food for bacteria and fungi, in turn, are food for the upper food chain—the protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, earthworms, etc. At each level, nutrients are released for plant use.
*At this ratio, plants have insect resistance; deviation invites harmful insect infestation.
Effects of Nutrient uptake on each other—
Excessive P adversely affects Ca, Mo, Mg, K, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, & Boron.
Excessive K adversely affects Fe, Na, Mn, N, Zn, B, Ca, & Mg.
Insufficient Ca adversely affects K & N.
Insufficient Mg, being a catalyst, is essential for each chlorophyll molecule, thus, when deficient results in poor photosynthesis, poor formation of proteins, and poor movement of carbohydrates.
Paramagnetism (PCSM Test) “…the ability of a substance to collect or resonate to the magnetic fields of the Cosmos—but is not magnetism.” (As opposed to magnetism.) In the soil the Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism are insulated from each other by organic material (OM)—but, if a salt fertilizer has been used, it forms an ionic solution which can conduct electricity, and this short-circuits the P/D polarity, and ruins the soil. (Paramagnetism should be as high as possible, ranging to a reading of 3000.)
Definition of paramagnetism: The atoms or molecules of a paramagnetic substance have a net magnetic spin such that the spins are capable of being temporarily aligned in the direction of an applied electromagnetic field when they are placed in that field. This produces an internal magnetic field (magnetic moment). They differ from magnetic substances (such as iron, nickel, & cobalt) where such spins remain aligned even when they are out of the applied field, e.g. are permanent. Magnetic susceptibility is measured, according to the physics handbook, in millionths of a CGS unit (Centimeters Grams Second), 1 × 10-6 CGS, or µCGS.
What does this mean for agriculture? All volcanic soil & rock is paramagnetic, (from 200 to 2,000 µCGS). According to Dr. Callahan’s research, a soil magnetic susceptibility reading of 0 – 100 µCGS would be poor; 100 – 300 µCGS good; 300 – 800 µCGS very good; & 800 -1200 µCGS above excellent. This force can be added to soil, where it has eroded away, by spreading ground-up paramagnetic rock (basalt, granite, etc.) into the soil.
“If a soil is not paramagnetic, then the moisture in the soil will not do what it should, i.e. rise in the morning and fall in the evening.” (Or with the tide?) “…it is the Paramagnetic forces which keep the plant saps circulating and thus plants are made more resilient to winter kills and much more disease resistant.” Ref: Philip S. Callahan, PhD.—Rediscovering Nature’s Force of Growth; Harvey Lisle, The Enlivened Rock Powders.
“The plant always eats at the second setting; the plant gets what the microbes give it.” William A. Albrecht in An Acres USA Primer.
“When essential nutrients are restricted, plants exhibit their stress by lodging, fungal diseases, bacterial debilitation, and insect attack.” An Acres USA Primer.
Typical Numbers of Soil Organisms Soil Biology Primer
Ag-land Soils Prairie Soils Forrest Soils Bacteria/gm 100m- 1b 100m- 1b 100m- 1b Fungi/gm Yards 10s- 100s Yds 100s Yds- Deciduous (1-40 Miles- Conifers) Protozoa/gm 1000s 1000s 100,000s Nematodes/sq.ft. 10-20 bact. feeders 10s- 100s 100s many predatory Arthropods/sq.ft. <100 500- 2,000 10-25,000 w/ more species Earthworms/sq.ft. 5- 30 10- 50 10- 50 (in Deciduous) BioMass Ratio- Fungi:Bacteria 1:1 100:1 500:1 for Deciduous 1000:1 for Conifers
Here is an example of a soil test report. Click the image for a larger view.